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Terpidana Mati Bali Nine Gugat Keppres Grasi ke PTUN

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Suara Pembaharuan February 10, 2015

Jakarta, Warga negara Australia, Myuran Sukumaran dan Andrew Chen, terpidana mati perkara narkotika, melalui penasihat hukumnya, Todung Mulya Lubis akan menggugat keputusan President RI yang menolak grasi kedua kliennya ke Pengadilan Tata Usaha Negara.

Menurut Mulya, keputusan Presiden (Keppres) menolak grasi kedua terpidana tidak disertai alasan-alasan yang rasional dan tidak memenuhi asas-asas umum pemerintahan yang baik. "Semestinya keputusan presiden menolak keduanya disertai dengan alasan-alasan. Itu penting baik bagi terpidana maupun penegak hukum. Tentu tidak akan nyaman bagi jaksa agung melakukan eksekusi berdasarkan penolakan grasi yang tidak disertai dengan alasan-alasan yang rasional, "kata Mulya di kantornya kawasan SCBD, Jakarta, Senin (9/2) sore.

Myuran dan Andrew populer dijuluki anggota Bali Nine karena bersama ketujuh kawannya kedapatan berupaya memasukan heroin seberat 8,2 kilogram ke Bali pada 17 April 2005.

Sebelum menolak grasi atas keduanya, lanjut Mulya, seharusnya presiden serta petinggi hukum melihat langsung perubahan yang sudah terjadi atas kedua terpidana. "Selama 10 tahun Myuran dan Andrew sudah banyak berubah. Apakah presidan, jaksa agung dan Menkumham pernah datang ke LP Kerobokan untuk melihat dan menemui langsung kedua terpidana?" ucapnya.

Dalam konfrensi pers yang juga diikuti sejumlah wartawan asing itu, dilampirkan pula fotokopi tulisan tangan kedua terpidana mata kepada Presiden Joko Widodo. Melalui surat tertanggal 27 Januari 2015 itu, Myuran dan Andrew memohon untuk bisa diberi kesempatan kedua dalam hidup mereka yang telah berubah. "Saya sedang belajar untuk menjadi pendeta,"uangkap Andrew dalam tulisan tangan dengan bahasa Indonesia.

Sedangkan Syukumaran mengaku, semula dia apatis bisa mengubah hidupnya sebagai pribadi yang baik. "Penjara anda telah mengubah saya menjadi orang yang luar biasa, orang baik, orang yang terpelajar," tuturnya dalam surat kepada presiden.

Syukumaran dan Andrew yang populer sebagai anggota Bali Nine ditolak grasinya melalui Keputusan Presiden No 32 tertanggal 30 Desember 2014 dan Keppres No 9 tertanggal 17 januari 2015.

Dengan keputusan presiden menolak memberikan pengampunan maka keduanya akan menjalani eksekusi pidana mati dengan cara ditembak.

Meski secara teori upaya hukum sudah tidak ada lagi, Mulya selaku kuasa hukum tetap berpandangan kedua keppres itu layak untuk digugat. "Kami akan ajukan gugatan ke PTUN pada Rabu atau selambatnya Kamis mendatang,"jelasnya.

Dia berpendapat, pernyataan presiden yang tidak memberikan ampunan bagi terpidana kasus narkotika sebelum keppres penolakan grasi dikeluarkan, merupakan bentuk dari sikap presiden sebagai kepala pemerintahan yang mengabaikan  asas-asas umum pemerintahan yang baik.

"Sepatutnya Presiden RI sebelum membuat keputusan atas suatu permohonan grasi memperlihatkan pula fakta-fakta yang relevan yang hanya bisa diperoleh dari observasi terhadap individu dari masing-masing pemohon grasi,"tandas Mulya

 

 

 

Jakarta fires back at PM over Bali pair "threats"

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The Australian, February 19, 2015


Relations with Indonesia have reached boiling point after Tony Abbott demanded Indonesia remember the help Australia gave its northern neighbour after the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami and spare the lives of Bali Nine.members on death row.

Using his strongest language yet, the Prime Minister sent a reminder that Australia gave Jakarta $1 billion in aid after the disaster,while pointing out Australians died in the relief effort.

But Mr Abbott's words have angered Indonesia, with officials warning him against making threats.

"When Indonesia was struck by the Indian Ocean tsunamiAustralia sent a billion dollars worth of assistance,'' he said.

“We sent a significant contingent of our armed forces to help in Indonesia with humanitarian relief and Australians lost their lives in that campaign to help Indonesia.”

MR. Abbott said Australia would beletting its "displeasure" be known should Indonesia push ahead•with the executions. "We will be letting Indonesia knowinabsolutelyuriambiguous tenus that we feel grievously let down, “he said.

Speaking in Jakarta, Indonesian Fore1gn Ministry spokesman Amnanatha Nasir fired back at Mr Abbott. "There's asaying in Indonesia, 'Orang akan terlihat warna sebenarnya', (people will be shown its true colours)," he said.

"So I hope this does not reflect, the statements made, the true colours of Australians. Threats are not part of diplomatic language and, from what I know, no one responds well to threats’

Drug smugglers Audrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran won a brief reprieve from the firing squad on Tuesday when the Indonesian Attorney General intervened to delay their movement to, a jail in Java. Indonesian officials said the

delay was only to give family members of the men more time to spend with their loved ones, and insisted the executions would eventually go ahead. Foreign Minister Julie Bishop

revealed yesterday she had spoken to Chan and Sukumaran by telephone. Ms Bishop said both men expressed relief their executions had been delayed

Hukuman Mati Inilah Surat Terbuka Ibunda Terpidana Mati Myuran Sukumaran untuk Jokowi

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Tribunnews, May 17 2015
 
TRIBUNNEWS.COM, SYDNEY - Ibunda salah seorang duo "Bali Nine" yang dieksekusi pada 29 April lalu di Nusakambangan menulis sebuah surat terbuka untuk Presiden Joko Widodo terkait eksekusi mati yang dijalani putranya, Myuran Sukumaran.
 
Di tengah persiapan pemakaman Myuran, Raji Sukumaran mengirimkan surat terbuka yang dikirimkan ke sejumlah media tentang isi hatinya kepada Presiden Joko Widodo.
 
Raji membuka surat terbukanya itu dengan salam untuk Presiden Jokowi yang juga bapak dari tiga anak. Kemudian Raji memperkenalkan diri sebagai ibu Myuran yang dieksekusi mati pada 29 April lalu di Nusakambangan.
 
"Saya sangat ingin meyakini bahwa Anda akan memahami (perasaan saya), dan jika tidak, Anda bebas berbagi surat ini dengan istri Anda yang saya yakin akan memahami sebagai sesama ibu," kata Raji dalam surat yang penuh emosi itu.
 
Selanjutnya Raji mengakui bahwa Myuran memang melakukan sebuah kesalahan besar namun putranya itu juga sudah berulang kali meminta maaf kepada pemerintah dan rakyat Indonesia.
 
Selama 10 tahun mendekam dalam penjara, lanjut Raji, Myuran sudah berusaha sekuat tenaga untuk menebus kesalahannya.
 
Raji melanjutkan, Myuran berusaha keras untuk menjadi orang baik selama dalam penjara dan menjadi teladan bagi narapidana lainnya.
Myuran bahkan membantu sesama narapidana yang mengalami masalah dengan obat terlarang dan banyak masalah lain.
 
Myuran, ujar Raji, hanya berharap dengan banyak menolong orang lain dia bisa memberi sedikit perubahan bagi mereka saat keluar dari penjara kelak.
 
"Putra saya tak pernah meminta dibebaskan karena telah menjalani rehabilitasi, dia hanya meminta agar tidak dieksekusi mati. Apakah terlalu berat bagi Anda untuk membiarkannya hidup di dalam penjara?" tanya Raji.
 
Masih dalam suratnya, Raji mengatakan Myuran turut bergembira saat Presiden Joko Widodo memenangkan pemilihan presiden di Indonesia.
 
Myuran rayakan kemenangan Jokowi
 
Myuran, kata Raji, menyebut Joko Widodo adalah presiden rakyat yang mendukung pendidikan, rehabilitasi dan upaya warga memperbaiki hidup mereka.
 
Myuran sangat berharap Presiden Joko Widodo menghargai semua upaya yang sudah dilakukan selama mendekam di dalam penjara.
 
"Sebagai manusia, saya tak memahami bagaimana Anda bisa menandatangani surat kematian seseorang tanpa mempelajari situasi personal mereka?" kata Raji.
 
"Jika Anda tak membaca berkas yang Anda tandatangani bagaimana Anda bisa mengetahui orang yang diseksekusi adalah seseorang yang menderita gangguan mental , atau ayah dua anak, atau seorang tua di atas kursi roda, atau ibu muda dengan dua anak, atau yang lainnya?" lanjut Raji.
 
"Putra saya hanya berharap hidup di dalam penjara sepanjang sisa hidupnya sehingga dia masih bisa melakukan hal baik. Semua yang diinginkannya adalah kesempatan untuk melakukannya," tambah Raji.
 
Raji lalu menggambarkan betapa hancur perasaannya dan ibunda Andrew Chan, terutama di bulan-bulan terakhir menjelang eksekusi, terutama saat menjadi santapan media ketika dipindahkan dari Bali menuju Nusakambangan.
 
"Saya berharap anak-anak, cucu, para keponakan Anda tak pernah berbuat kesalahan. Saya juga ingin Anda mengingat saat anak-anak Anda jatuh cinta, menikah, merencanakan masa depan. Andrew Chan juga jatuh cinta, merencanakan masa depan dan dia dieksekusi. Bagaimana jika itu terjadi pada anak Anda?" ujar Raji.
 
Raji menambahkan, dia mendapat kabar saat Myuran diberi kesempatan memberikan kata-kata terakhirnya, salah satu yang dia lakukan adalah mendoakan Indonesia.
 
"Putra saya memaafkan negara Anda dan orang-orang yang mencabut nyawanya, karena dia tahu Anda tak tahu apa yang Anda lakukan. Saya tak tahu apakah saya bisa memaafkan Anda, saya hanya berharap saya masih memiliki kekuatan dan cukup kasih untuk memaafkan Anda satu hari nanti," Raji menegaskan.
 
"Saat saya menutup surat ini, saya mendoakan orang-orang lain yang hidupnya kini berada di tangan Anda, khususnya mereka yang menjadi terpidana mati. Saya berdoa agar Anda memiliki keberanian untuk melihat sisi lain selain politik karena mereka memiliki keluarga yang mencintai mereka apapun kesalahan yang mereka perbuat," kata Raji di penghujung suratnya.
 

Mereka yang Tak Gentar Melawan Jokowi Jelang Eksekusi Mati

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CNN Indonesia, March 25, 2015

Jakarta, CNN Indonesia -- Jaksa Agung HM Prasetyo memastikan akan mengeksekusi sepuluh terpidana mati secara bersamaan. Tentunya, setelah upaya hukum terpidana mati rampung. Sikap Prasetyo melunak setelah terpidana mati beramai-ramai mengajukan perlawanan ke Pengadilan Tata Usaha Negara (PTUN) Jakarta.

Setidaknya, empat dari sepuluh terpidana menjajal perlawanan hukum tersebut. Upaya banding diajukan pasca PTUN menolak gugatan pertama para terpidana soal penolakan grasi dalam Keputusan Presiden Joko Widodo. Rupanya, saat itu pengadilan memihak pada Jokowi yang dinilai memiliki perisai 'hak prerogatif' untuk tak memberi ampun para gembong. (Baca juga: Detik-detik Maut Lima Terpidana di Depan Regu Tembak)
Adalah duo "Bali Nine" Andrew Chan dan Myuran Sukumaran yang memprakarsai gugatan Keputusan Presiden soal penolakan grasi. Kuasa hukumnya, Todung Mulya Lubis dan Leonard Arpan Aritonang, jeli menemukan celah hukum dalam Pasal 62 ayat 3 UU Nomor 5 Tahun 1986 tentang PTUN. Berdasar penelusuran CNN Indonesia, pasal tersebut membuka ruang perlawanan atas penetapan PTUN.

Chan dan Sukumaran tak gentar memperjuangkan haknya dalam hukum. Keputusan Presiden Nomor 32/G tahun 2014 untuk Myuran dan Keputusan Presiden No 9/G tahun 2015 tertanggal 17 Januari 2015 untuk Andrew Chan, tegas menolak grasi untuk keduanya. Satu hal yang mereka gugat adalah kenapa Jokowi tak menjelaskan alasan penolakan grasi.

Kepada CNN Indonesia, Leonard bercerita ihwal upaya hukum tersebut. "Hari ini, sidang pengajuan bukti dari kuasa hukum di PTUN Jakarta Timur," ujarnya ketika dihubungi Selasa (24/3). Bukti tersebut dapat berupa saksi fakta, saksi ahli, atau dokumen. Jalan hukum pun masih panjang. Setidaknya, ada tiga kali sidang menanti.

Chan dan Sukumaran diciduk kepolisian pada 2004 karena terbukti menyelendupkan lebih dari delapan kilogram heroin. Keduanya divonis hukuman mati pada 2005 dan mendekam di penjara. Saat ini, keduanya telah dipindahkan ke Lembaga Pemasyarakatan (LP) Besi di Nusakambangan. (baca juga: Nusakambangan Siap Terima 10 Terpidana Mati untuk Dieksekusi)

Chan dan Sukumaran mengilhami terpidana lainnya untuk melakukan upaya sama. Raheem Agbaje Salami asal Nigeria mencoba peruntungan. "Tanggal 31 Maret sidang di PTUN Jakarta Timur. Kami akan tetap mencoba seluruh proses yudisial. Sama seperti Chan dan Sukumaran," ujar kuasa hukum Raheem, Utomo Karim, kepada CNN Indonesia.

Utomo geram lantaran PTUN menolak gugatan pertama sebelum masuk ke pokok perkara. "Padahal tergugat (Presiden) belum menerima gugatan dan membacanya," kata Utomo. Persis seperti rekan senasibnya, Raheem menggugat presiden soal rasionalisasi penolakan grasi.

Raheem ditangkap lantaran menyelundupkan heroin seberat 5 kilogram pada tahun 1999. Setelah diadili pada tingkat pertama, ia divonis penjara seumur hidup. Kemudian, Raheem mengajukan banding. Oleh majelis hakim pengadilan tinggi, hukuman Raheem diringankan menjadi penjara selama 20 tahun.

Namun, Raheem ngotot mengajukan kasasi ke Mahkamah Agung. Hakim Agung justru memperberat hukuman Raheem menjadi vonis mati. Tak terima, Raheem mengajukan PK. Upayanya mencari keadilan kandas. Ia tetap diganjar hukuman mati. Raheem juga berupaya mengajukan ampunan permohonan ke Presiden. Namun, grasinya ditolak.

Setali tiga uang, kawan satu negara Raheem, Sylvester Obiekwe alias Mustofa turut menggugat Jokowi. Selasa (24/3), ia mendaftarkan perlawanan atas penetapan PTUN. Kuasa hukumnya, Farhat Abbas, mengaku ada kesalahan prosedur dalam penolakan grasi.

"Sudah daftar untuk perlawanan, tapi bukan kita minta Kepres dibatalkan, tapi hanya prosedurnya," ujar Farhat kepada CNN Indonesia. Menurutnya, Keputusan Presiden dibuat berdasar pengajuan grasi pengacara terdahulu. Padahal, pengacara tersebut tak lagi memiliki kuasa hukum atas kliennya.

Merujuk catatan Badan Narkotika Nasional (BNN), Sylvester ditangkap pada 2004. Saat itu ia menyelundupkan barang haram berupa heroin sebanyak 1,2 kilogram ke Indonesia.

Perlawanan ini, disebut sebagai senjata pamungkas para terpidana mati. Kepastian hukum dari pengadilan dinanti, sembari menunggu eksekusi di Pulau Nusakambangan. "Semoga ada jalan cerah," ujar Leonard.

Aghnia Adzkia

Bali Nine duo executed: the view from Indonesia

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The Conversation.com, April 29 2015
 
Amid international calls for mercy, the Indonesian government has executed eight people, including Bali Nine duo Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran.
 
This is the second round of executions under President Joko Widodo, popularly known as Jokowi. He justified the killings as a “shock therapy” to solve Indonesia’s drug crisis.
 
Indonesian experts respond below.
 
Nonsensical executions
 
Tobias Basuki, Researcher at the Department of Politics and International Relations Centre for Strategic and International Studies
 
Indonesia has lost its moral standing internationally given it is also attempting to save the lives of its own citizens on death row abroad – some of whom have been convicted of drug-related crimes as well. But, more importantly, it has twisted and jumbled its own legal system.
 
Eight more lives have been lost. Among them are reformed Australians Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran, Ghanaian Martin Anderson and Brazilian Rodrigo Gularte – who was reportedly diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.
 
The Indonesian Constitution maintains the right to life. However, beyond normative ideas of human rights and the rule of law, the sense of justice in Indonesia has been turned upside-down.
 
The Indonesian government has taken the lives of rehabilitated criminals, a “petty” criminal, who was caught with 50 grams of drugs, and a reportedly mentally ill person. However, it practically released killers hailed as “heroes” who butchered fellow Indonesians in cold blood in the 2011 Cikeusik massacre.
 
It is tragic to have already lost 14 lives to executions since Jokowi took office. Australia and other countries that objected to the death penalty to save the lives of their citizens should continue the campaign to abolish it.
 
The indignant reactions by foreign leaders and some aggressive statements and actions in response to the previously planned executions have been counter-productive. They have all but nailed their own citizens' coffins by arousing a backlash of nationalistic sentiment from within Indonesia. That left no room for Jokowi to backflip on his refusal to grant clemency, no matter how small the possibility was.
 
Australia in particular would do well to stay on the campaign constructively, not by threats of boycotts and belligerent statements. Maintaining advocacy efforts against the death penalty will vindicate Australia’s position and shield it from accusations it is merely serving its national interest. It would prove that Australia’s objection to the death penalty was not mere self-interest, but that it is genuine in wanting a greater value placed on the right to life and a better legal system in Indonesia.
 
Death penalty derails Indonesia’s legal reform efforts
 
Asmin Fransiska, Lecturer in Human Rights at Atma Jaya Catholic University
 
The Indonesian government is wrong for arguing that upholding the death penalty is a matter of “law enforcement”. The death penalty actually derails efforts to reform the country’s legal system.
 
Law enforcement institutions in Indonesia are tainted by a corrupt bureaucracy and dirty legal apparatus. Cases of torture are not hard to find. Under these circumstances, it is possible that the death penalty is imposed as a result of a mistaken legal process.
 
Death penalty sentencing is also laden with discrimination. It is used disproportionately for certain groups of people. The death penalty never touches perpetrators from the elite, rich and powerful.
 
The use of the death penalty derails legal reform objectives. One of the goals in criminal law reform is to change perspectives on punishment. The purpose of punishment is not only deterrence or condemnation, but also restorative justice.
 
The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and UNAIDS have said:
 
States should review and reform criminal laws and correctional systems to ensure that they are consistent with international human rights obligations and are not misused in the context of HIV or targeted against vulnerable groups.
The issues of drugs are mostly not only related to the user or seller, but most of the time it deals with the range of people who help or merely associate with those who sell drugs.
 
All crimes should be viewed in a legal context as a social, cultural and economic problem. To carry out the death penalty by claiming it deters drug crimes without addressing the three issues is a misguided policy.
 
The death penalty has become one of the biggest obstacles in applying international human rights principles in Indonesia’s legal reforms. Indonesia ratified the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in 2005. Article 6 of the ICCPR stipulates that defendants should be guaranteed fair trials that are non-discriminatory and free from torture and degrading punishment. In Indonesia, these guarantees have been violated as shown in the examples above.
 
Finally, there is no significant proof that the death penalty deters crime. Death sentences for drug traffickers have not stopped illegal sales of narcotics.
 
The increase in drug trafficking, terrorism or other crimes should not be seen as a result of weak implementation of the death penalty. We must look at the issue as a structural problem. Misconduct by law enforcers, a corrupt bureaucracy, poverty and the government’s inability to provide a solution is evidence of a structural problem that needs to be tackled without reverting to the death penalty as an answer.
 
‘Shoot first, ask later’
 
Yohanes Sulaiman, Lecturer in International Relations at Indonesian Defence University
 
Jokowi’s administration seems to be a “shoot first, ask later” government. I think the president did not spend a long time thinking about the long-term implications of his policy of executing drug convicts on death row. He seems to think everybody must hate drug traffickers, so therefore it is okay to shoot them.
 
Jokowi was caught off guard by the international reaction to his policy to execute foreign nationals convicted of drug trafficking. At the same time, he used this international pressure against Indonesia as an opportunity to look strong in front of the Indonesian people.
 
Jokowi’s reaction to calls from foreign leaders to spare the lives of the death-row convicts differs from the attitude of his predecessor, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY). If this international backlash against Indonesia had happened in SBY’s term, the then president would have been very unhappy.
 
However, Jokowi just shrugged it off. He is not concerned about being seen negatively by the international community. He is more inclined to show himself as a strong father figure and leader who would defend Indonesians from the drug scourge and international pressures.
 
The more the international community fought the president’s decision on executions, the more Jokowi gained from it. Still, it is doubtful whether the political points scored from standing up to international pressure will have a long-term effect – or even that the gain would be that high. The reason is that, domestically, most people do not really care about the executions and most of the attention is on the undermining of the corruption eradication commission.
 
Australia-Indonesia relations will not be disrupted too much. For Australia, in the long run, maintaining a good relationship with Indonesia is worth more than the lives of Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran. However, Jokowi could have used this opportunity to form an alliance and win Australia’s support for Indonesia in saving its citizens on death row abroad, such as in Saudi Arabia.
 
Human rights groups are very disappointed with Jokowi’s policy on executions as it does not uphold human rights principles. Some supporters have become disillusioned with him. However, it is not fair to blame Jokowi for their disappointment. He did not base his presidential campaign on human rights issues, even though it was included in his campaign manifesto.
 
Jokowi was more of a blank canvas. Supporters painted what they wanted him to be during the presidential campaign. As he was going up against ex-military general Prabowo Subianto – who had a bad human rights record – people assumed that Jokowi would be better on human rights issues.
 
People had expected too much of Jokowi. When it turns out that he is just another politician, naturally they will be disappointed.
 
Crowd versus public
 
Andina Dwifatma, Lecturer in the School of Communication at Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
 
On March 2, Kompas – one of Indonesia’s biggest daily newspapers – published an opinion poll about how people saw Jokowi’s foreign policy. One of the questions asked was about Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran’s executions.
 
Some 86% of respondents agreed that Chan and Sukumaran should be executed regardless of the Australian government’s protests. To these people, Jokowi’s move represents strength – a character that leaders must possess.
 
A question lingers amid talk of being firm on drug traffickers. Is the death penalty necessary to show strength in the war against drugs? Or is it merely the president’s desperate way to prove that he possesses that quality, especially after he could not be firm in stopping the Indonesian police from undermining the country’s anti-graft agency?
 
In the same opinion poll, 57.8% respondents were willing to cut off diplomatic relations with any country that failed to show respect for Indonesia’s law, including Australia. This noticeably high percentage shows that, for most Indonesians, national pride is something important to hold on to.
 
To understand the high percentage of people supporting the death penalty and having nationalistic attitudes, it is important to distinguish between the concepts of the “public” and the “crowd”.
 
A crowd is moved by a unity of emotional experience. Crowd members tend to be reactive rather than deliberative. In the crowd, individuals easily lose their own identity, and act only according to collective desire.
 
This is why some people approve of killing other people in the name of national pride. This is also why people in Aceh gathered coins to repay Australia after Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott’s comments linking tsunami aid and the lives of Chan and Sukumaran.
 
Meanwhile, the “public” means individuals gather not only in the name of empathy, but also for the ability to think and to argue. A group of people can be called “public” when faced with common problems; they express point of views regarding the problem and are willing to be involved in discussions to find a solution.
 
Take Filipino Mary Jane Veloso’s case. From Twitter hashtags and online petitions to community actions and discussions, people examined Veloso’s story as a human trafficking case. People, including Indonesians, used chronological data of Veloso’s case to argue that Jokowi should have granted clemency for her. The public did not only shout angrily at the Indonesian government; they argued with reason. Veloso was spared from the firing squad at the 11th hour.
 
Being part of the crowd will only prevent Indonesians – and also Australians – from seeing the larger picture of the debate about the death penalty. It will also rule out any chance of dialogue between the two countries.
 
The best thing we can do now is to make sure we stay together as “public”. Hate speech, and reactive and violent actions, should be avoided. The public does not, and need not, always agree. Combining differences of opinion with a desire to solve problems together is a prerequisite of public existence.
 

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